“A Universe from Nothing”, written by Lawrence Krauss and supplied with an enthusiastic afterword from Richard Dawkins, has a clear message: the beginning of the universe was a tiny fluctuation which happened to arise from nothing, just like that.
A wonderful idea at first sight. However there is a fatal snake in the grass. The problem is that there is no such thing as nothing.
The idea of some fluctuation arising from nothing is inconsistent with gravitation being an inescapable property of the world as result of the inevitable fluctuation that has to exist anywhere at all times. This can be explained as follows.
As soon as there is some energy (= mass) anywhere, there is some time and consequently some space. If gravitation increases, time runs slower. If gravitation decreases, time runs faster. So one can say that time varies between zero and infinite. Not 0 or infinite, because that is incompatible with C (posts 5 and 6). Therefore some energy (= mass) or some fluctuation/information must exist anywhere at all times. This means that gravitation is an inescapable property of the world and not an emergent phenomenon.
How can we measure and determine the speed of C? In fact we cannot unless there is some time. For instance we can measure the speed of light because it has some energy (= mass) or information and therefore some time (close to zero). By measuring the speed of light we find c for C. In doing that we must take into account that gravitation continuously changes the speed of light (post 12).
It is impossible to measure time/distance relations with absolute certainty. This intrinsic uncertainty of time is an inescapable property of the world (principle introduced in post 16).
In post 6 (“C=T/M x E/S”) the causal relations between the variable dimensions mass, time, energy and space are described. In space-time continuously a process is going on, everywhere and in each direction, of changes in mass, energy, space and time and the ratios between them, causing them to change again etc. Whatever these changes may be and whatever proportions these variables may bear to one another, the result must always be the same, C. This is an inescapable property of the world to which the four variable dimensions are fully subjected. The values of each variable cannot be 0 or infinite, because that is incompatible with C. Hence it is impossible for singularities to exist and for the universe not to be finite. Because space is finite and C is continuous, space-time is both finite and unbounded. Consequently the universe has no beginning and no ending, it is eternal.