The inconstancy of the speed of light
The speed of light is defined as a constant (in vacuum). This implies a steady ratio between frequency and wavelength. If the frequency increases the wavelength shortens proportionally. Therefore the lapse of time between two wave tops is supposed to be shorter or longer as the wavelength becomes shorter or longer. As we know light leaving earth looses energy. The wavelength increases and so does the lapse of time between two wave tops. Light approaching earth gets more energy, the wavelengths shorten and so does the lapse of time between two wave tops. Therefore one may expect that time is running slower when the influence of gravitation is diminishing and that time is running faster when the influence of gravitation is increasing.
However, by means of atomic chronometers the opposite has been ascertained. Clocks run slower respectively faster as the influence of gravitation grows respectively diminishes.
The Shapiro time-delay also proves that time goes slower when the influence of gravitation increases. This phenomenon is explained by the curvature of space-time forcing light to follow a curved and therefore longer path. Yet this does not explain the discrepancy between what one may expect and the results of chronometry: time-delay (clocks running slower) does not seem compatible with shorter wavelengths. On the other hand time-acceleration (clocks running faster) does not seem compatible with longer wavelengths.
The atomic chronometers show that there is a relation between mass and time as indication of gravitational strength. Like C the relation between mass and time is constant and continuous. In other words, any change of mass (increase/decrease) is attended by a change of time (slower/faster). If a ray of light, with its energy (= mass), approaches the mass of the earth, the wavelength shortens due to the time-delay generated by the increasing influence of the earth’s gravitation. Shorter wavelengths imply more energy. On the other hand the wavelength of a ray of light leaving earth lengthens due to the time-acceleration generated by the decreasing influence of the earth’s gravitation. Longer wavelengths imply less energy.
Apparently gravitation changes the speed of light. If light looses energy due to gravitation (the distance between two wave tops lenghens), its speed increases proportionally. If light gets more energy due to gravitation (the distance between two wave tops shortens), its speed decreases proportionally. The flyby anomaly (Pioneer, Galileo) can be traced to this process also.
To be continued.