Max Planck’s quantum hypothesis
Planck’s quantum hypothesis (1900) implies that energy can only be emitted or absorbed in certain quantities, meaning that these processes are subject to restriction. Without such a restriction it would be possible in theory that the amount of energy emitted or absorbed could be infinite, which of course is impossible.
The effect of this restriction is that light and other energy waves cannot be emitted at random, but transmitted only in the shape of particles, so-called quanta, the energy of which is more intense as the frequency of the waves is higher. In this way emitting particles at high frequencies requires more energy at a certain moment than available.
In accordance with quantum mechanics particles cannot possess pinpointed positions and momentums, but are represented by a wave. If a wave is known at a certain point in time, it is possible to calculate/predict its further development.
However, if we try and determine/interpret waves in terms of positions and momentums of particles, we are confronted with an element of unpredictability/ uncertainty, in conformity with Heisenberg’s principle of uncertainty (1926). According to this principle it is impossible to pinpoint the position and momentum of a particle at the same time; therefore it is impossible also to predict future positions and momentums of a particle.
To be continued.