## Space-time is velocity (36)

Introduction

In his book “A brief History of time” (Chapter 8, “The Origin and Fate of the Universe”)  Stephen Hawking  describes how in Euclidean space-time there is no difference between the directions of time and the directions of space.

The theoretical consequences of this concept imply that freedom of travel of light and for the transmission of energy or information applies to all directions of space-time. Any event therefore, originating in a particular point at a particular moment, will unfold histories from that point and that moment on into each and every direction.

I think Hawking’s idea can help Physics and Cosmology to get out of the impasse they are in and get rid of tunnel visions (see for instance post 26).

In this post I consider the consequences of describing space-time from other perspectives than the standard views, about which I have strong doubts, and their compatibility with the Euclidean view.
This post is written within the scope of endogenous changes, leaving exogenous changes out for the sake of proper distinction.

Space-time

The speed of light is independent of the speed of the source. Apparently the velocity of propagation of light does exist already, being present continuously. As such, being a continuity, it can be considered a fundamental property of the world. Actually the energy in question is not so much emitted, it is transmitted.
As explained in post 12 the speed of light is not constant, it is variable; moreover the speed of light is not independent of the mass of the source and the distance from the source (the space between the source and the energy of the light transmitted),  which implies a change of time.

Looking at the processes going on in the universe endogenously, there is no rest, everything moves and, as explained in previous posts, there is no 0-entropy.
Examples of human contrivance like length, width and height do not play a role. Continuously a process is going on of changes in the ratios between Space, Time, Mass and Energy (see also post 6).

Everything moves, how does it work?
Length, width and height do not work, but Space and Time are taking part  continuously in universal processes in all directions as described above. As such Space stands for distance, no matter in what direction, the same directions of Time in Euclidean Space-Time.

Conclusion

I conclude that in Hawking’s Euclidean space-time, replacing length, width and height by space,  Space-Time, more specifically Space÷Time, works as velocity. By adding Mass and Energy the four dimensions are replaced by four fundamental properties of the world, the true agents of endogenous processes in the universe.

Update (August 18, 2020)

The endogenous processes as meant in this post and  as described in posts 29 and 33 are stochastic within the constraint of the constant C.

Update (April 11, 2021)

Just for the record: dimensions are not agents.

What happens in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider)? In a  ring-shaped tunnel debris is examined, produced from debris (from the presumed Big Bang) in an exogenous process, that is by means of an input of external energy.

I wonder if the methodology used is leading us to the goals pursued: finding solid answers to questions like “what is the universe made of?”; “how does it behave and why does it behave like that?”; “are there fundamental building blocks and if so, what are they?”; “how do they interact and how do they determine the properties of the universe?”.

So far the results are reasonably n line with the Standard Model of particle physics and Quantum Mechanics, consistent with Special Relativity, but not yet firmly set in General Relativity. Also  theoretical aspects of Supersymmetry (SUSY)/Superpartners  have not yet been dealt with satisfactorily. Furthermore there is no certainty that o-entropy is a possibility. And there is String Theory trying to combine gravity and the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions into one theory of particle physics. So far without solid results.

In previous posts I have explained why I think the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes should be taken into account in physics, why I don’t think 0-entropy is a possibility, why I think a singularity is an impossibility  and why I think the Higgs boson is a misconception.

Notwithstanding  still existing  indistinctnesses, the search for the Higgs boson being behind us, already a new goal  has been set to try and test the theory that predicts a whole range of particles that have not been seen yet but would have been produced during the Big Bang. Looks like tunnel vision to me.

As I understand it particle physics seemingly is losing its marbles. What is the nature of what one thinks has been examined, is being examined, is going to be examined? Debris from what?

I cannot but conclude that the Collider’s methodology is abacadebris.

Update (October 8, 2019): considering that particles are mass and waves are energy,  the term particle-wave duality is just another way of expressing that mass and energy are the same.

## Gravitational waves in question (34)

Introduction.

The dreaming up and realization of the LIG Observatory is a fantastic achievement, worthy of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2017.

However, questions/problems such as the one about the true nature of gravity, the LIGO “strange noise” observation problem, the NASA observation of a  burst of gamma rays at almost the exact same time as the first LIGO observation  on September 14, 2015, the astrophysical nature of the signals and questions about ripples in a non-existing fabric of space-time , space being as good as empty and time being an illusion, have not as yet been answered/explained satisfactorily. Not to forget the aspects of the speed of propagation of the waves in question.

The claim that gravitational waves have been detected by LIGO seems rather premature. Are there no alternatives to be studied?

An alternative explained.

As suggested in posts 1, 29, 30, 32 and 33, gravity is not the effect of space-time being curved by the division of mass and energy in it, but the combined effects of Time, Space, Mass and Energy as generic, not independent, fully interrelated fundamental variable properties of the world under the constraint of a constant C.
In addition the effects of gravitational interactions are resultants, just like the effects of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions as they share the same agents Time, Space, Mass and Energy. As such they continuously change each other’s proportions. This means that their effects are subject to varying degrees of randomness.

Consequently gravitational effects can be distinguished as follows: gravitational radiation, observed/detected for the first time by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, and the effects of Time as explained in post 1.
Nota bene: no Big Bang as a singularity is an impossibility (thermodynamics), variable speed of light (posts 12, 28 and 33), no equivalence principle (incompatibility of endogenous and exogenous processes).

I suggest the possibility that Time effects, given the abovementioned considerations, can be detected if they are short enough and intense enough, for instance as results of a merger of two Black Holes. In this context short enough and intense enough means an enormous change of Time in an extremely short moment. In the process of the merger of two Black Holes (see post 30) Time delays  to extremely slow. In the process of explosion that follows, Time accelerates to extremely fast in an extremely short moment. This very extreme change is reflected in coherent processes.

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## Gravity is a resultant and so are the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions (33)

As suggested in post 6, Time, Space, Mass and Energy are properties of the world/decisive factors which shape the world endogenously, being generic and not independent, their proportions being fully interrelated, continuously changing each other’s proportions.

As suggested in post 29, gravity and the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are  bound endogenously by C=T/M x E/S.
For gravitational and strong interactions this means C=T+/M+ x E-/S- or C=T-/M- x E+/S+. For electromagnetic and weak interactions this means C=T+/M+ x E+/S+ or C=T-/M- x E-/S-.

The consequence of both suggestions is that any change of Time and/or Space and/or Mass and/or Energy  will have some effect on gravitational, strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. This is a continuous process of changes in Time, Space, Mass and Energy and the ratios between them, continuously affecting results from the gravitational, strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, causing Time, Space, Mass and Energy to change again etc. In general such changes are rather small, but in areas where they are (very) big, examples that spring to mind are Black Holes, their composite effects must be unmistakable.

Conclusion:
Gravitational , strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are generic and not independent, their proportions being fully interrelated, continuously  changing each other’s proportions (see for instance post 12). This means that their effects are resultants, sharing the same agents Time, Space, Mass and Energy.

To be continued.

## Beware of suggestive changes of information (32)

Introduction.

In post 13 (March 2011) I have explained why I think that gravity is not an emergent phenomenon but a continuity, in contrast with Erik Verlinde’s idea of emergent gravity.
n post 31 (September 2016) I have explained why there is always at least almost nothing everywhere.

The idea of emergent gravity means that gravity emerges from the changes of fundamental bits of information. As this process is supposed to abide by the second law of thermodynamics, emergent gravity is also referred to as entropic gravity.

In this post I like to elaborate further on whether gravity abides by the second law of thermodynamics  or whether entropy is gravitational. Also whether gravity is discontinuous or continuous.

Is gravity entropic or is entropy gravitational?

In situations where there is only a wee bit of energy/mass present in the universe time runs extremely fast. As explained in posts 20 and 25 time-differences between for instance the core of a Black Hole and its more outwardly situated areas are enormous, resulting in big differences in temperature and therefore big thermodynamic effects. Time-differences are related to differences in mass and therefore differences in gravitational influence. This means that entropy as thermodynamic property is result of thermodynamic effects caused by differences in gravitational influence. In other words: entropy is gravitational.

Is gravity discontinuous or continuous?

The effects of time-differences also imply that a singularity (a real Black Hole) cannot come into existence nor a state of 0-entropy. Time is variant and continuous, it cannot run infinite fast or infinite slow.  As explained in posts 5 and 6  continuously a process is going on in the universe , everywhere and in each direction, of changes in the ratios between mass, energy, space and time, properties of the world/decisive factors which shape the world endogenously, being generic and not independent, their proportions being fully interrelated, continuously changing each other’s proportions, under the constraint of a constant and continuous C (C=T/M x E/S). Time is continuous, so is gravity and so is entropy as gravitational effect.

Zeno’s paradox of the race between Achilles and the tortoise.

To end this post I like to explain why in Zeno’s paradox of the race between Achilles and the tortoise Achilles can’t even catch up with the tortoise. The way it is made impossible for Achilles to catch up with the tortoise is twofold: the process is made discontinuous  and time delays to infinite slow.

Postscriptum.

I am afraid that emergent has become a buzzword lately, coming in handy as Newtonian “In no time” and Einstein’s “Time is an illusion” are not very helpful in cause-effect process descriptions.

To be continued.

## Missing mass/energy in the universe is not dark but light (31)

In addition to previous posts (15 and 18 in particular) I suggest the possibility that missing mass/energy in the universe is not dark but actually light and therefore in fact not missing at all. I’ll explain why there is no empty space in the universe as there always is at least almost nothing everywhere.

Dark Matter/Energy is mass/energy that is missing because it is unaccounted for due to the use of wrong parameters. The arguments on which I base this statement have been explained comprehensively in previous posts, like the speed of light not being constant, the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes, the space-time curvature delusion, the nothing delusion, the impossibility for a singularity to exist or for entropy to be zero, etc. Now , in addition to these views, I’ll bring forward my ideas with regard to seemingly empty space actually containing a lot of extra energy/mass implying a lot of extra gravitational influence.

When light/radiation is invading spaces into directions where the influence of gravitation is decreasing to almost zero while time is accelerating, its energy/mass decreases to almost nothing (its wavelengths becoming almost infinite long) and its speed increases extremely (see also post 12 in particular). This process is comparable with accelerating masses emitting energy, the true source of CMB as I have suggested in previous posts.

When light/radiation goes into other (opposite) directions where the gravitational influence is increasing while time is delaying, its energy/mass increases (its wavelengths becoming shorter) and its speed decreases.

Conclusion:

There is vastly more light mass/energy in the universe than is taken into account generally.

## Was the signal observed by LIGO really a gravitational wave or is there an alternative explanation? (30)

In previous posts I have explained why I think that gravitational waves do not exist and cannot come into existence. In short I have a combination of two arguments on which I base my conviction that the signal observed by LIGO is not a gravitational wave:

By introducing gravitation, in his General Theory of Relativity, as the effect of space-time being curved by the division of mass and energy in it, Einstein made it possible for the speed of light to be constant (see post 1 in particular); nevertheless the speed of light is not constant (see post 12 in particular);

Einstein’s equivalence principle is not valid, because Einstein did not take account of the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes (see post 15  in particular).

In space-time continuously a process is going on, everywhere and in each direction, of changes of mass, energy, space and time and the ratios between them, causing them to change again etc. Any event, originating at a particular point at a particular moment, will unfold histories from that point and that moment on into each and every direction. Moreover events will develop faster into directions where the course of time is relatively  fast and slower into directions where the course of time is relatively slow. Mass, energy, space and time are fundamental properties of the world which shape the world endogenously, being generic and not independent, their proportions being fully interrelated, continuously changing each other’s proportions . They are endogenously bound by C = T/M x E/S  (see also posts 6, 13 and 14).

As suggested in post 29 all four fundamental forces are bound by C = T/M x E/S.
What are the effects of the process of the merger of two Black Holes as reported by LIGO?
– a decrease of the system’s mass (a loss of 3 solar masses);
– a decrease of the system’s space (the merger);
– a decrease of  the system’s energy (energy release);
– very long wavelengths.
How can these effects be understood as variable factors within the concept of C = T/M x E/S? A decrease of mass, a decrease of energy , a decrease of space and time-acceleration (responsible for increasing wavelengths) are compatible with one of the four equations suggested in post 29, C = T-/M- x E-/S-, which describes effects of electromagnetic and weak interactions.

Conclusion:
I suggest the possibility that the signal observed by LIGO as result of the merger of two Black Holes is a footprint from an electromagnetic interaction process and/or a weak interaction process.

Update ((March 2, 2016):

On September 14, 2015, at almost the exact same time as LIGO’s sinal was observed, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observed a passing burst of gamma rays (source: QUANTAmagazine, March 2, 2016).

Update (June 15, 2016):

Two facts: the LIGO team cannot determine as yet the astrophyscal nature of the signal nor assess that it was produced by a binary Black-Hole merger leading to a newly formed Black Hole; also the LIGO team cannot determine as yet the true source of gravitation.

## A closer look at the strong and weak forces as endogenous interactions (29)

As explained in posts 21, 23, 24 and 25, both gravitation and electromagnetic interaction are bound endogenously by C=T/M x E/S, a concept derived from Einstein’s E=MCC (see also posts 6, 13 and 14).

Electromagnetic interaction

An increase of the distance between an electron and the nucleus it orbits is accompanied by an increase of energy and mass and by time-delay: the electron’s attraction towards the nucleus increases (C=T+/M+ x E+/S+).
A decrease of the distance between an electron and the nucleus it orbits is accompanied by a decrease of energy and mass  and by time-acceleration: the electron’s attraction towards the nucleus decreases (C=T-/M- x E-/S-).

Strong interaction

The processes between quarks, described as QCD’s confinement and asymptotic freedom, can be described  endogenously as follows.

Confinement: if quarks happen to get away from each other, this results in a reaction which is a process of decreasing energy, increasing mass, time-delay and decreasing distance (C=T+/M+ x E-/S-).
Asymptotic freedom: if quarks happen to get closer to each other,  this results in a reaction which is a process of increasing energy, decreasing mass, time-acceleration and an increasing distance (C=T-/M- x E+/S+).

Weak interaction

The weak interaction makes it possible for elementary particles such as quarks and electrons to exchange  energy, mass and charge, like electromagnetic interactions, but then on a much smaller scale.

Conclusion

I suggest the possibility that not only gravitation and electromagnetic interaction, but also the strong and weak interactions are bound endogenously by C=T/M x E/S.

For gravitation and strong interactions this means C=T+/M+ x E-/S-  or C=T-/M- x E+/S+.
For electromagnetic and weak interactions this means C=T+/M+ x E+/S+ or C=T-/M- x E-/S-.

The consequence of my suggestion is that gravitation, electromagnetic interaction and the strong and weak interactions are endogenously compatible with each other.

## Cosmological relativity (28)

In post 12 I have explained why the speed of light is not constant. In posts 9 and 15 I have explained why Einstein’s Equivalent Principle is out of date as he did not take account of the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes. The General Theory of Relativity is based on the premises of a constant speed of light (see also post 1) and the Equivalent Principle. The speed of light not being constant and the Equivalent Principle being out of date, what does that mean for the concept of relativity in cosmological sense? This question can be answered as follows.

Nothing can go faster than the speed of light ceteris paribus.
There is light here and there is light there, because there is light everywhere.
The speed of light can be higher here than the speed of light there or the speed of light there can be higher than the speed of light here. Therefore something can go faster here than the speed of light there  or something can go faster there than the speed of light here.

This is what I call cosmological relativity.

## “Particles accelerate without a push” (MIT news, January 20, 2015). An explanation (27)

Particles accelerate without a push: this phenomenon is a perfect example of an endogenous process. I have laid the theoretical foundation for such a process in various earlier posts as will be explained below.

First question: what is the essence of why particles apparently spontaneously accelerate without a push?
Answer: endo-inertia (see post 23). This property does not mean that a particle is accelerating without a cause, “force/energy”, but that the cause, “force/energy” is for free.

Second question: what is the free driving “force” that makes particles accelerate ?