## Beware of suggestive changes of information (32)

Introduction.

In post 13 (March 2011) I have explained why I think that gravity is not an emergent phenomenon but a continuity, in contrast with Erik Verlinde’s idea of emergent gravity.
n post 31 (September 2016) I have explained why there is always at least almost nothing everywhere.

The idea of emergent gravity means that gravity emerges from the changes of fundamental bits of information. As this process is supposed to abide by the second law of thermodynamics, emergent gravity is also referred to as entropic gravity.

In this post I like to elaborate further on whether gravity abides by the second law of thermodynamics  or whether entropy is gravitational. Also whether gravity is discontinuous or continuous.

Is gravity entropic or is entropy gravitational?

In situations where there is only a wee bit of energy/mass present in the universe time runs extremely fast. As explained in posts 20 and 25 time-differences between for instance the core of a Black Hole and its more outwardly situated areas are enormous, resulting in big differences in temperature and therefore big thermodynamic effects. Time-differences are related to differences in mass and therefore differences in gravitational influence. This means that entropy as thermodynamic property is result of thermodynamic effects caused by differences in gravitational influence. In other words: entropy is gravitational.

Is gravity discontinuous or continuous?

The effects of time-differences also imply that a singularity (a real Black Hole) cannot come into existence nor a state of 0-entropy. Time is variant and continuous, it cannot run infinite fast or infinite slow.  As explained in posts 5 and 6  continuously a process is going on in the universe , everywhere and in each direction, of changes in the ratios between mass, energy, space and time, properties of the world/decisive factors which shape the world endogenously, being generic and not independent, their proportions being fully interrelated, continuously changing each other’s proportions, under the constraint of a constant and continuous C (C=T/M x E/S). Time is continuous, so is gravity and so is entropy as gravitational effect.

Zeno’s paradox of the race between Achilles and the tortoise.

To end this post I like to explain why in Zeno’s paradox of the race between Achilles and the tortoise Achilles can’t even catch up with the tortoise. The way it is made impossible for Achilles to catch up with the tortoise is twofold: the process is made discontinuous  and time delays to infinite slow.

Postscriptum.

I am afraid that emergent has become a buzzword lately, coming in handy as Newtonian “In no time” and Einstein’s “Time is an illusion” are not very helpful in cause-effect process descriptions.

To be continued.

## Missing mass/energy in the universe is not dark but light (31)

In addition to previous posts (15 and 18 in particular) I suggest the possibility that missing mass/energy in the universe is not dark but actually light and therefore in fact not missing at all. I’ll explain why there is no empty space in the universe as there always is at least almost nothing everywhere.

Dark Matter/Energy is mass/energy that is missing because it is unaccounted for due to the use of wrong parameters. The arguments on which I base this statement have been explained comprehensively in previous posts, like the speed of light not being constant, the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes, the space-time curvature delusion, the nothing delusion, the impossibility for a singularity to exist or for entropy to be zero, etc. Now , in addition to these views, I’ll bring forward my ideas with regard to seemingly empty space actually containing a lot of extra energy/mass implying a lot of extra gravitational influence.

When light/radiation is invading spaces into directions where the influence of gravitation is decreasing to almost zero while time is accelerating, its energy/mass decreases to almost nothing (its wavelengths becoming almost infinite long) and its speed increases extremely (see also post 12 in particular). This process is comparable with accelerating masses emitting energy, the true source of CMB as I have suggested in previous posts.

When light/radiation goes into other (opposite) directions where the gravitational influence is increasing while time is delaying, its energy/mass increases (its wavelengths becoming shorter) and its speed decreases.

Conclusion:

There is vastly more light mass/energy in the universe than is taken into account generally.

## Was the signal observed by LIGO really a gravitational wave or is there an alternative explanation? (30)

In previous posts I have explained why I think that gravitational waves do not exist and cannot come into existence. In short I have a combination of two arguments on which I base my conviction that the signal observed by LIGO is not a gravitational wave:

By introducing gravitation, in his General Theory of Relativity, as the effect of space-time being curved by the division of mass and energy in it, Einstein made it possible for the speed of light to be constant (see post 1 in particular); nevertheless the speed of light is not constant (see post 12 in particular);

Einstein’s equivalence principle is not valid, because Einstein did not take account of the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes (see post 15  in particular).

In space-time continuously a process is going on, everywhere and in each direction, of changes of mass, energy, space and time and the ratios between them, causing them to change again etc. Any event, originating at a particular point at a particular moment, will unfold histories from that point and that moment on into each and every direction. Moreover events will develop faster into directions where the course of time is relatively  fast and slower into directions where the course of time is relatively slow. Mass, energy, space and time are fundamental properties of the world which shape the world endogenously, being generic and not independent, their proportions being fully interrelated, continuously changing each other’s proportions . They are endogenously bound by C = T/M x E/S  (see also posts 6, 13 and 14).

As suggested in post 29 all four fundamental forces are bound by C = T/M x E/S.
What are the effects of the process of the merger of two Black Holes as reported by LIGO?
– a decrease of the system’s mass (a loss of 3 solar masses);
– a decrease of the system’s space (the merger);
– a decrease of  the system’s energy (energy release);
– very long wavelengths.
How can these effects be understood as variable factors within the concept of C = T/M x E/S? A decrease of mass, a decrease of energy , a decrease of space and time-acceleration (responsible for increasing wavelengths) are compatible with one of the four equations suggested in post 29, C = T-/M- x E-/S-, which describes effects of electromagnetic and weak interactions.

Conclusion:
I suggest the possibility that the signal observed by LIGO as result of the merger of two Black Holes is a footprint from an electromagnetic interaction process and/or a weak interaction process.

Update ((March 2, 2016):

On September 14, 2015, at almost the exact same time as LIGO’s sinal was observed, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observed a passing burst of gamma rays (source: QUANTAmagazine, March 2, 2016).

Update (June 15, 2016):

Two facts: the LIGO team cannot determine as yet the astrophyscal nature of the signal nor assess that it was produced by a binary Black-Hole merger leading to a newly formed Black Hole; also the LIGO team cannot determine as yet the true source of gravitation.

Posted in cosmology, gravitation, physics, relativity, Uncategorized | | Leave a comment

## A closer look at the strong and weak forces as endogenous interactions (29)

As explained in posts 21, 23, 24 and 25, both gravitation and electromagnetic interaction are bound endogenously by C=T/M x E/S, a concept derived from Einstein’s E=MCC (see also posts 6, 13 and 14).

Electromagnetic interaction

An increase of the distance between an electron and the nucleus it orbits is accompanied by an increase of energy and mass and by time-delay: the electron’s attraction towards the nucleus increases (C=T+/M+ x E+/S+).
A decrease of the distance between an electron and the nucleus it orbits is accompanied by a decrease of energy and mass  and by time-acceleration: the electron’s attraction towards the nucleus decreases (C=T-/M- x E-/S-).

Strong interaction

The processes between quarks, described as QCD’s confinement and asymptotic freedom, can be described  endogenously as follows.

Confinement: if quarks happen to get away from each other, this results in a reaction which is a process of decreasing energy, increasing mass, time-delay and decreasing distance (C=T+/M+ x E-/S-).
Asymptotic freedom: if quarks happen to get closer to each other,  this results in a reaction which is a process of increasing energy, decreasing mass, time-acceleration and an increasing distance (C=T-/M- x E+/S+).

Weak interaction

The weak interaction makes it possible for elementary particles such as quarks and electrons to exchange  energy, mass and charge, like electromagnetic interactions, but then on a much smaller scale.

Conclusion

I suggest the possibility that not only gravitation and electromagnetic interaction, but also the strong and weak interactions are bound endogenously by C=T/M x E/S.

For gravitation and strong interactions this means C=T+/M+ x E-/S-  or C=T-/M- x E+/S+.
For electromagnetic and weak interactions this means C=T+/M+ x E+/S+ or C=T-/M- x E-/S-.

The consequence of my suggestion is that gravitation, electromagnetic interaction and the strong and weak interactions are endogenously compatible with each other.

## Cosmological relativity (28)

In post 12 I have explained why the speed of light is not constant. In posts 9 and 15 I have explained why Einstein’s Equivalent Principle is out of date as he did not take account of the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes. The General Theory of Relativity is based on the premises of a constant speed of light (see also post 1) and the Equivalent Principle. The speed of light not being constant and the Equivalent Principle being out of date, what does that mean for the concept of relativity in cosmological sense? This question can be answered as follows.

Nothing can go faster than the speed of light ceteris paribus.
There is light here and there is light there, because there is light everywhere.
The speed of light can be higher here than the speed of light there or the speed of light there can be higher than the speed of light here. Therefore something can go faster here than the speed of light there  or something can go faster there than the speed of light here.

This is what I call cosmological relativity.

## “Particles accelerate without a push” (MIT news, January 20, 2015). An explanation (27)

Particles accelerate without a push: this phenomenon is a perfect example of an endogenous process. I have laid the theoretical foundation for such a process in various earlier posts as will be explained below.

First question: what is the essence of why particles apparently spontaneously accelerate without a push?
Answer: endo-inertia (see post 23). This property does not mean that a particle is accelerating without a cause, “force/energy”, but that the cause, “force/energy” is for free.

Second question: what is the free driving “force” that makes particles accelerate ?
Answer: time (see post 15).

The underlying basic reason is the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes. This difference implies that the acceleration of a body by gravitation is not equivalent to the acceleration of a body by pseudo-gravitation or the push of a rocket or an elevator. Gravitation, acceleration and inertia are only equivalent to each other if they share the same driver. They are endogenously equivalent if this driving “force” is time (see also posts 3, 6, 12, 13, 19, 21, 24, 25 and 26).

I think it is time the Physics Community starts taking account of the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes and its corresponding consequences.

## The wrong tracks of physics and string theories (26)

In his book “A Brief History of Time” Stephen Hawking describes how in Euclidean space-time there is no difference between the directions of time and the directions of space.

The theoretical consequences of this mathematical concept imply that freedom of travel of light and for the transmission of energy or information applies to all directions in space-time. Any event therefore, originating in a particular point at a particular moment, will unfold histories from that point and from that moment on into each and every direction.

However, the concepts of gravitational fields, electromagnetic fields, quantum/Higgs fields and strings incorporated in space-times with 10, 11 or 26 dimensions imply limitations to the freedom of travel of light and for the transmission of energy or information in space-time.
The question is whether these limitations are justified by each or any combination of these diverse concepts.
As explained in various previous posts, the limitations in question seem to be unjustified for reasons of several incompatibilities with the current views:

1. When one turns on a light, the speed of light does not emerge, it is already present;
2. The speed of light is not constant;
3. Einstein’s Equivalence Principle does not take account of the difference between
endogenous and exogenous processes;
4. A singularity (a real Black Hole) is an impossibility;
5. A state of 0-entropy is an impossibility;
6. The consequences of the equality-inequality of gravitation and electromagnetic interaction.

My views on these subjects imply that there is no difference in space-time between the directions of time and the directions of space and that this equality of the directions of time and the directions of space is a fundamental property of the world.

It is for this basic reason that I think that physics and string theories are on wrong tracks.