## Exo-inertia and endo-inertia (23)

In earlier posts I have explained the difference between exogenous and endogenous processes and why the equivalence principle only  holds if and when gravitation (endogenous), acceleration and inertia share the same endogenous driver .

Consequently we have  to make a distinction between inertia as the tendency to maintain momentum (exogenous) and inertia as the tendency to maintain mass (endogenous, see  for instance post 17). Therefore I make the distinction between exo-inertia and endo-inertia.

Endo-inertia, how does it work, what are its properties, its relations to gravitation and acceleration?

As explained in post 21, the tendency of an electron to go nearer to the nucleus  gets stronger the greater the distance  from  it, its mass increases,  time delays. In lower orbits the opposite happens, a stronger tendency to get away from the nucleus through mass decrease and time-acceleration. As suggesred there is no change of momentum.

In this article I suggest the possibility that electromagnetic interaction is in essence endo-inertia, the tendency to maintain mass (no change of momentum, in contrast with exo-inertia, the tendency to maintain momentum without change of mass).
Gravitation (consequence of a continuous relation between mass and time), time-driven (de)-acceleration and emdo-inertia are equivalent (see posts 9 and 15).

## The problems in physics (22)

Particles, quanta or quantasy?

No basis for quanta

In posts 1 – 12 and 17 I have explained why quanta need not exist, why there is no basis for their existence.
There are two main arguments:
1. The way light behaves under the influence of gravitation shows that the amount of energy that can be emitted or absorbed by a body is finite because of the self-regulating mechanism of the continuous relation between the body’s mass and time;
2. The difference between endogenous and exogenous processes.

The relativity of the General Theory of Relativity

Speed of light not constant in vacuum

In post 12 I have explained why the speed of light varies with position under the influence of gravitation.

Space-time curvature delusion

In posts 1, 2, 6 and 21 I have enunciated the idea that gravitation is not the consequence of space-time being curved by the division of mass and energy in it (always resulting in a force of attraction) but the consequence of a continuous relation between mass and time (resulting in a force of attraction or repulsion).

Equivalence Principle updated

In posts 9 and 15 Einstein’s Equivalence Principle has been updated in consistency with the difference between endogenous and exogenous processes.

Introduction of Time Uncertainty Principle

In posts 16 and 18 I have introduced the Time Uncertainty Principle which means that it is impossible to measure time/distance relations with absolute certainty. This intrinsic uncertainty of time is an inescapable property of the world. Consequently, in combination with the speed of light being variant, cosmological measurements as to the age of universe, the total mass of the universe etc. are incorrect.

Big Bang Theory out of date

In posts 6, 14, 18 and 20 I have explained why it is impossible for singularities to exist and why the universe is both finite and unbounded. Consequently the universe has no beginning and no ending, it is eternal.

Conclusion

It seems to me that the best way to solve the problems in physics is to go back to basics.

## Comparing gravitation with electromagnetic interaction (21)

Coulomb’s law states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of magnitude of each charge and indirectly proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Newton’s law of gravitation states that the force of attraction between two point masses is directly proportional to the product of magnitude of each mass and indirectly proportional to the square of the distance between them.

As explained in post 6 (C=T/M x E/S) the process of the earth getting closer to the sun all the time can be considered a process of mass and time increase and energy and space decrease, whereas the process of the moon accelerating away from the earth can be regarded as mass and time decrease and energy and space increase.

In this article I compare processes like the earth orbiting the sun and the moon orbiting the earth under the influence of gravitation (postulated by me as a force of attraction or repulsion as consequence of a continuous relation between mass and time – see posts 1, 2, 12 and 15 -) in the same way, without violating the constraint of C, with the processes of electrons orbiting a nucleus under the influence of electromagnetic interaction. I hereby suggest that there is no change of momentum (see post 9).

When an electron goes into a lower orbit it (the system of this electron and the nucleus) loses energy. Its charge decreases and so does its mass (the charge-to-mass ratio is a constant). In this process there is energy and space decrease as well as mass and time decrease. The increase of the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron in the lower orbit is compensated by the decrease of the electron’s charge.

When an electron goes into a higher orbit it absorbs energy. Its charge increases and so does its mass. In this process there is energy and space increase as well as mass and time increase. The decrease of the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron in the higher orbit is compensated by the increase of the electron’s charge.

Comparing these processes with gravitational processes we see that the lower the orbit, the faster the course of time and the higher the orbit, the slower the process of time.
Consequently the force of repulsion from time acceleration also compensates the increase of the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron in the lower orbit, whereas the force of attraction from time delay also compensates the decrease of the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron in the higher orbit.

How are electromagnetic interaction and gravitation (consequence of a continuous relation between mass and time) related?
I suggest the possibility that they are in fact two of a kind.

## The origin of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) (20)

The origin of UHECR’s is a mystery, notwithstanding the fact that they were discovered 100 years ago.

In my opinion UHECR’s originate from Black Holes or more precisely from the Interchange Horizons of Black Holes in cases of decreasing distances between Black Holes and their Interchange Horizons (see post 19). This can be explained as follows.

In a Black Hole the course of time is extreme slow due to the enormous gravitational pull or time-delay by the mass of the Black Hole. The increase of entropy in a Black Hole evolves at a slower rate than the increase of entropy outside the Black Hole. The difference between the process of time in the centre of a Black Hole and the course of time at its Interchange Horizon is very big. This implicates that the differences in temperature must be very big also due to the thermodynamical effects caused by the time-differences. By the same token singularities cannot exist.

If a Black Hole is subject to time-acceleration (the process of accelerating expansion of the universe is caused by time-acceleration), the process of growth of entropy in the Black Hole evolves at an increasing rate. The circumference of the Interchange Horizon decreases. The energy of rays disappearing from the Interchange Horizon into space increases (increasing wavelengths and increasing amplitude heigths). The mass of the Black Hole decreases (see also post 13).

As explained in earlier posts the accelerating expansion of the universe is accompanied by the emission of energy like the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), energy emitted by masses moving away from each other.
The difference between the masses involved is the only difference between the origins of UHECR and CMBR (see also post 15).

## Time, Entropy, Black Holes and the Interchange Horizon (19)

The arrow of entropy (as thermodynamic property) has the same directionality as the arrow of time. As explained in post 3 there is no difference between the directions of time and the directions in space. Consequently the freedom of changes in entropy applies to all directions in space-time, following the directions of time.

Entropy is a measure of disorder or more accurately of unpredictability. The intrinsic uncertainty of time (the time uncertainty principle introduced in post 16) implicates that it is impossible to measure time-distance relations with absolute certainty. Entropy can be considered the result of continuous endogenous changes of mass-energy ratios in space-time (see also post 6).

As explained in post 13, time varies between zero and infinite (not zero or infinite). The course of time varies between extreme fast and extreme slow (not infinite fast or infinite slow).
This means that an increase of entropy in Black Holes evolves at a slower rate than an increase of entropy outside Black Holes (see also posts 12 and 17).

At a certain distance from a Black Hole there is a place where light rays are influenced by the Black Hole’s gravitational pull or time-delay to the extent that these rays start to slow down and turn off to the Black Hole. Other light rays happen to get just enough extra speed enabling them to turn away from the Black Hole and disappear into the space surrounding it (see also post 12).
This means that a Black Hole is surrounded by an Interchange Horizon at which light rays share the same constant speed as long as they remain in that area.

The circumference of the Interchange Horizon is a measure of a Black Hole’s mass.

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## The Nothing Delusion (18)

“A Universe from Nothing”, written by Lawrence Krauss and supplied with an enthusiastic afterword from Richard Dawkins, has a clear message: the beginning of the universe was a tiny fluctuation which happened to arise from nothing, just like that.

A wonderful idea at first sight. However there is a fatal snake in the grass. The problem is that there is no such thing as nothing.
The idea of some fluctuation arising from nothing is inconsistent with gravitation being an inescapable property of the world as result of the inevitable fluctuation that has to exist anywhere at all times. This can be explained as follows.

As soon as there is some energy (= mass) anywhere, there is some time and consequently some space. If gravitation increases, time runs slower. If gravitation decreases, time runs faster. So one can say that time varies between zero and infinite. Not 0 or infinite, because that is incompatible with C (posts 5 and 6). Therefore some energy (= mass) or some fluctuation/information must exist anywhere at all times. This means that gravitation is an inescapable property of the world and not an emergent phenomenon.
How can we measure and determine the speed of C? In fact we cannot unless there is some time. For instance we can measure the speed of light because it has some energy (= mass) or information and therefore some time (close to zero). By measuring the speed of light we find c for C. In doing that we must take into account that gravitation continuously changes the speed of light (post 12).
it is impossible to measure time/distance relations with absolute certainty. This intrinsic uncertainty of time is an inescapable property of the world (principle introduced in post 16).

In post 6 (“C=T/M x E/S”) the causal relations between the variable dimensions mass, time, energy and space are described. In space-time continuously a process is going on, everywhere and in each direction, of changes in mass, energy, space and time and the ratios between them, causing them to change again etc. Whatever these changes may be and whatever proportions these variables may bear to one another, the result must always be the same, C. This is an inescapable property of the world to which the four variable dimensions are fully subjected. The values of each variable cannot be 0 or infinite, because that is incompatible with C. Hence it is impossible for singularities to exist and for the universe not to be finite. Because space is finite and C is continuous, space-time is both finite and unbounded. Consequently the universe has no beginning and no ending, it is eternal.

## The Higgs particle delusion (17)

My statement that the Higgs particle does not exist is based on three arguments.

The first argument concerns the non requirement of the existence of particles anyhow. The second argument is related to the difference between an exogenous process and an endogenous process; this difference should be respected and not be disregarded. The third argument concerns the question of what mass is really all about.

As explained in post 8 the frequency (= energy = mass) of radiation waves increases if time delays, whereas the opposite happens if time accelerates. This continuous gravitational process (gravitation is the consequence of a continuous relation between mass and time) makes sure that energy can only be emitted or absorbed to a certain extent. Therefore the amount of energy that can be emitted or absorbed is finite because of the self-regulating mechanism of the continuous relation between mass and time. Consequently the basis of quantum physics, the hypothesis of Max Planck is unsettled. In other words, there is no wave-particle duality, there are waves only.